Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2013
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Silvercrest and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, SLP, SAMG LLC, SFS, MCG, Silvercrest Investors LLC and Silvercrest Investors II LLC as of and for the year ended December 31, 2013. The consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 are of the Company’s accounting predecessor, SLP, and its consolidated subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
The Company evaluates for consolidation those entities it controls through a majority voting interest or otherwise, including those SLP funds in which the general partner or equivalent is presumed to have control over the fund. The initial step in our determination of whether a fund for which SLP is the general partner is required to be consolidated is assessing whether the fund meets the definition of a variable interest entity (VIE). None of funds for which SLP is the general partner met the definition of a VIE during the three years ended December 31, 2013, as the total equity at risk of each fund is sufficient for the fund to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support provided by any parties, including the equity holders.
SLP then considers whether the fund is a voting interest entity (VoIE) in which the unaffiliated limited partners have substantive “kick-out” rights that provide the ability to dissolve (liquidate) the limited partnership or otherwise remove the general partner without cause. SLP considers the “kick-out” rights to be substantive if the general partner for the fund can be removed by the vote of a simple majority of the unaffiliated limited partners and there are no significant barriers to the unaffiliated limited partners’ ability to exercise these rights in that among other things (1) there are no conditions or timing limits on when the rights can be exercised, (2) there are no financial or operational barriers associated with replacing the general partner, (3) there are a number of qualified replacement investment advisors that would accept appointment at the same fee level, (4) each fund’s documents provide for the ability to call and conduct a vote, and (5) the information necessary to exercise the kick-out rights and related vote are available from the fund and its administrator.
As of December 31, 2013 and December 31, 2012 and for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, all of the funds for which SLP was the general partner have substantive “kick-out” rights and therefore neither SLP nor Silvercrest consolidated any of the Silvercrest Funds.
As of December 31, 2013, Silvercrest holds approximately 63% of the economic interests in SLP. Silvercrest is the sole general partner of SLP and, therefore, controls the management of SLP. As a result, Silvercrest consolidates the financial position and the results of operations of SLP and its subsidiaries, and records a non-controlling interest, as a separate component of stockholders’ equity on its Consolidated Statement of Financial Condition for the remaining economic interests in SLP. The non-controlling interest in the income or loss of SLP is included in the Consolidated Statement of Operations as a reduction or addition to net income derived from SLP.
The Company views its operations as comprising one operating segment. Each of the Company’s acquired businesses have similar economic characteristics and have been fully integrated upon acquisition. Furthermore, our chief operating decision maker, which is the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, monitors and reviews financial information at a consolidated level for assessing operating results and the allocation of resources.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues, expenses and other income reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates and assumptions made by management include the fair value of acquired assets and liabilities, equity based compensation, accounting for income taxes, the useful lives of long-lived assets and other matters that affect the Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid securities with original maturities of 90 days or less when purchased to be cash equivalents.
Restricted Certificates of Deposit
Certain certificates of deposit held at a major financial institution are restricted and serve as collateral for letters of credit for the Company’s lease obligations as described in Note 10.
Equity Method Investments
Entities and investments over which the Company exercises significant influence over the activities of the entity but which do not meet the requirements for consolidation are accounted for using the equity method of accounting, whereby the Company records its share of the underlying income or losses of these entities. Intercompany profit arising from transactions with affiliates is eliminated to the extent of its beneficial interest. Equity in losses of equity method investments is not recognized after the carrying value of an investment, including advances and loans, has been reduced to zero, unless guarantees or other funding obligations exist.
The Company evaluates its equity method investments for impairment, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts of such investments may not be recoverable. The difference between the carrying value of the equity method investment and its estimated fair value is recognized as an impairment when the loss in value is deemed other than temporary. The Company’s equity method investments approximate their fair value at December 31, 2013 and December 31, 2012. The fair value of the equity method investments is estimated based on the Company’s share of the fair value of the net assets of the equity method investee which consist of Level I and Level II securities. No impairment charges related to equity method investments were recorded during the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011.
Receivables and Due from Silvercrest Funds
Receivables consist primarily of amounts for advisory fees due from clients and management fees, and are stated as net realizable value. The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful receivables based on estimates of expected losses and specific identification of uncollectible accounts. The Company charges actual losses to the allowance when incurred.
Furniture, Equipment and Leasehold Improvements
Furniture, equipment and leasehold improvements consist primarily of furniture, fixtures and equipment, computer hardware and software and leasehold improvements and are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the assets’ estimated useful lives, which for leasehold improvements is the lesser of the lease term or the life of the asset, generally 10 years, and 3 to 7 years for other fixed assets.
The Company accounts for business combinations using the acquisition method of accounting. The acquisition method of accounting requires that purchase price, including the fair value of contingent consideration, of the acquisition be allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed using the fair values determined by management as of the acquisition date. Contingent consideration is recorded as part of the purchase price when such contingent consideration is not based on continuing employment of the selling shareholders. Contingent consideration that is related to continuing employment is recorded as compensation expense. Payments made for contingent consideration recorded as part of an acquisition’s purchase price are reflected as financing activities in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
For acquisitions completed subsequent to January 1, 2009, the Company remeasures the fair value of contingent consideration at each reporting period using a probability-adjusted discounted cash flow method based on significant inputs not observable in the market and any change in the fair value from either the passage of time or events occurring after the acquisition date, is recorded in earnings. Contingent consideration payments that exceed the acquisition date fair value of the contingent consideration are reflected as an operating activity in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill consists of the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets of businesses acquired. Goodwill is not amortized and is generally evaluated for impairment using a two-step process that is performed at least annually, or whenever events or circumstances indicate that impairment may have occurred.
In September 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-08, “Testing Goodwill for Impairment”, which provided new accounting guidance on testing goodwill for impairment. The enhanced guidance provides an entity the option to first perform a qualitative assessment of whether a reporting unit’s fair value is more likely than not less than its carrying value, including goodwill. In performing its qualitative assessment, an entity considers the extent to which adverse events or circumstances identified, such as changes in economic conditions, industry and market conditions or entity specific events, could affect the comparison of the reporting unit’s fair value with its carrying amount. If an entity concludes that the fair value of a reporting unit is more likely than not less than its carrying amount, the entity is required to perform the currently prescribed two-step goodwill impairment test to identify potential goodwill impairment and, accordingly, measure the amount, if any, of goodwill impairment loss to be recognized for that reporting unit. The guidance was effective for the Company as of January 1, 2012. The Company utilized this option when performing its annual impairment assessment in 2013 and concluded that its single reporting unit’s fair value was more likely than not greater than its carrying value, including goodwill.
The Company assessed goodwill using the two-step process in 2012. The first step of the two-step process is a comparison of the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, goodwill of the reporting unit is not considered impaired and the second step is unnecessary. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, a second step is performed to measure the amount of impairment by comparing the carrying amount of the goodwill to a determination of the implied fair value of the goodwill. If the carrying amount of the goodwill is greater than the implied value, an impairment loss is recognized for the difference. The implied value of the goodwill is determined as of the test date by performing a purchase price allocation, as if the reporting unit had just been acquired, using currently estimated fair values of the individual assets and liabilities of the reporting unit, together with an estimate of the fair value of the reporting unit taken as a whole. The estimate of the fair value of the reporting unit is based upon information available regarding prices of similar groups of assets, or other valuation techniques including present value techniques based upon estimates of future cash flows.
The Company has one reporting unit at December 31, 2013 and 2012. No goodwill impairment charges were recorded during the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011.
Identifiable finite-lived intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives ranging from 3 to 20 years. The method of amortization is based on the pattern over which the economic benefits, generally expected undiscounted cash flows, of the intangible asset are consumed. Intangible assets for which no pattern can be reliably determined are amortized using the straight-line method. Intangible assets consist primarily of the contractual right to future management, advisory and performance fees from customer contracts or relationships.
Long-lived assets of the Company are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the net carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. In connection with such review, the Company also re-evaluates the periods of depreciation and amortization for these assets. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to undiscounted future net cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds their fair value.
Initial Public Offering Costs
During 2012, the Company incurred $2,816 of professional fees and other costs associated with its planned initial public offering. These costs are included in general, administrative and other in the Consolidated Statement of Operations. These costs were expensed upon the withdrawal of the Company’s registration statement in November 2012.
Partner incentive allocations, which are determined by the general partner, can be formula-based or discretionary. Prior to the reorganization and consummation of the IPO, incentive allocations are considered distributions of net income as stipulated by SLP’s Amended and Restated Limited Partnership Agreement in effect prior to the reorganization and were recognized in the period in which they were paid. Subsequent to the reorganization and consummation of the IPO, partner incentive allocations are treated as compensation expense and recognized in the period in which they are earned. In the event there is insufficient distributable cash flow to make incentive distributions, the general partner in its sole and absolute discretion may determine not to make any distributions called for under the partnership agreement. The remaining net income or loss after partner incentive allocations is generally allocated to unit holders based on their pro rata ownership.
Redeemable Partnership Units
Prior to the reorganization, redeemable partnership units in SLP consisted of units issued to our founders and those purchased by certain of our employees. These capital units entitled the holder to a share of the distributions of SLP. Units were subject to certain redemption features. Upon the termination of employment of the terminated employee, as defined, SLP had a right to call the units. In addition, the terminated employee had a right to put the units to SLP upon termination or death, provided the terminated employee had complied with certain restrictions, as described in the partnership agreement. In accordance with the provisions of SLP’s Second Amended and Restated Limited Partnership Agreement, the put described above expired upon the consummation of our IPO.
As the units were redeemable at the option of the holder and were not mandatorily redeemable, the redeemable partnership units were classified outside of permanent partner’s capital as of December 31, 2012. The units were adjusted to their redemption value at December 31, 2012 with the increase or decrease in redemption value being charged to excess of liabilities, redeemable partners’ capital and partner’s capital over assets.
Subsequent to the completion of the reorganization and IPO, if a principal of SLP is terminated for cause, SLP would have the right to redeem all of the vested Class B units collectively held by the principal and his or her permitted transferees for a purchase price equal to the lesser of (i) the aggregate capital account balance in SLP of the principal and his or her permitted transferees and (ii) the purchase price paid by the terminated principal to first acquire the Class B units.
SLP also makes distributions to its partners of various nature including incentive payments, profit distributions and tax distributions.
Class A Common Stock
The Company’s Class A stockholders are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of the Company’s stockholders. Also, Class A stockholders are entitled to receive dividends, when and if declared by the Company’s board of directors, out of funds legally available therefor, subject to any statutory or contractual restrictions on the payment of dividends and to any restrictions on the payment of dividends imposed by the terms of any outstanding preferred stock. Dividends consisting of shares of Class A common stock may be paid only as follows: (i) shares of Class A common stock may be paid only to holders of shares of Class A common stock and (ii) shares will be paid proportionately with respect to each outstanding share of the Company’s Class A common stock. Upon the Company’s liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, or the sale of all, or substantially all, of the Company’s assets, after payment in full of all amounts required to be paid to creditors and to holders of preferred stock having a liquidation preference, if any, the Class A stockholders will be entitled to share ratably in the Company’s remaining assets available for distribution to Class A stockholders. Class B units of SLP held by principals will be exchangeable for shares of the Company’s Class A common stock, on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary adjustments for share splits, dividends and reclassifications.
Class B Common Stock
Shares of the Company’s Class B common stock are issuable only in connection with the issuance of Class B units of SLP. When a vested or unvested Class B unit is issued by SLP, the Company will issue the holder one share of its Class B common stock in exchange for the payment of its par value. Each share of the Company’s Class B common stock will be redeemed for its par value and cancelled by the Company if the holder of the corresponding Class B unit exchanges or forfeits its Class B unit pursuant to the terms of the Second Amended and Restated Limited Partnership Agreement of SLP, the terms of the Silvercrest Asset Management Group Inc. 2012 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2012 Equity Incentive Plan”). The Company’s Class B stockholders will be entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of the Company’s stockholders. The Company’s Class B stockholders will not participate in any dividends declared by the Company’s board of directors. Upon the Company’s liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, or the sale of all, or substantially all, of its assets, Class B stockholders only will be entitled to receive the par value of the Company’s Class B common stock.
Revenue is recognized ratably over the period in which services are performed. Revenue consists primarily of investment advisory fees, family office services fees and fund management fees. Investment advisory fees are typically billed quarterly in advance at the beginning of the quarter or in arrears after the end of the quarter, based on a contractually specified percentage of the assets managed. For investment advisory fees billed in advance, the value of assets managed is determined based on the value of the customer’s account as of the last trading day of the preceding quarter. For investment advisory fees billed in arrears the value of assets managed is determined based on the value of the customer’s account on the last day of the quarter being billed. Family office services fees are typically billed quarterly in advance at the beginning of the quarter or in arrears after the end of the quarter based on a contractual percentage of the assets managed or based on a fixed fee arrangement. Management fees from proprietary and non-proprietary funds are calculated as a percentage of net asset values measured at the beginning of a month or quarter or at the end of a quarter, depending on the fund.
The Company accounts for performance based revenue in accordance with ASC 605-20-S99, “Accounting for Management Fees Based on a Formula”, by recognizing performance fees and allocations as revenue only when it is certain that the fee income is earned and payable pursuant to the relevant agreements, and no contingencies remain. Performance fee contingencies are typically resolved at the end of each annual period. In certain arrangements, the Company is only entitled to receive performance fees and allocations when the return on assets under management exceeds certain benchmark returns or other performance targets. The Company records performance fees and allocations as a component of revenue.
Equity-based compensation cost relating to the issuance of share-based awards to employees is based on the fair value of the award at the date of grant, which is expensed ratably over the requisite service period, net of estimated forfeitures. The forfeiture assumption is ultimately adjusted to the actual forfeiture rate. Therefore, changes in the forfeiture assumptions may affect the timing of the total amount of expense recognized over the vesting period. The service period is the period over which the employee performs the related services, which is normally the same as the vesting period. Equity-based awards that do not require future service are expensed immediately. Equity-based awards that have the potential to be settled in cash at the election of the employee or prior to the reorganization related to redeemable partnership units are classified as liabilities (“Liability Awards”) and are adjusted to fair value at the end of each reporting period. Distributions associated with Liability Awards not expected to vest are accounted for as compensation expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company expenses the net lease payments associated with operating leases on a straight-line basis over the respective lease term including any rent-free periods. Leasehold improvements are recorded at cost and are depreciated using the straight-line method over the lesser of the estimated useful lives of the improvements (generally 10 years) or the remaining lease term.
Silvercrest and SFS are subject to federal and state corporate income tax, which requires an asset and liability approach to the financial accounting and reporting of income taxes. SLP is not subject to federal and state income taxes, since all income, gains and losses are passed through to its partners. SLP is, however, subject to New York City unincorporated business tax. With respect to the Company’s incorporated entities, the annual tax rate is based on the income, statutory tax rates and tax planning opportunities available in the various jurisdictions in which the Company operates. Tax laws are complex and subject to different interpretations by the taxpayer and respective governmental taxing authorities. Judgment is required in determining the tax expense and in evaluating tax positions. The tax effects of an uncertain tax position (“UTP”) taken or expected to be taken in income tax returns are recognized only if it is “more likely-than-not” to be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on its technical merits as of the reporting date. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company recognizes estimated accrued interest and penalties related to UTPs in income tax expense.
The Company recognizes the benefit of a UTP in the period when it is effectively settled. Previously recognized tax positions are derecognized in the first period in which it is no longer more likely than not that the tax position would be sustained upon examination.
Recent Accounting Developments
In June 2013, the FASB issued ASU 2013-08, “Financial Services-Investment Companies (Topic 946): Amendments to the Scope, Measurement, and Disclosure Requirements.” The ASU modifies the guidance in ASC 946 for determining whether an entity is an investment company, as well as the measurement and disclosure requirements for investment companies. The ASU also clarifies the characteristics of an investment company and requires an investment company to measure noncontrolling ownership interests in other investment companies at fair value rather than using the equity method of accounting. The ASU does not change the current accounting where a noninvestment company parent retains the specialized accounting applied by an investment company subsidiary in consolidation. The ASU is effective for the fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2013. This ASU is not expected to have a material effect on the Company’s results of operations or financial position.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef